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Castles in Scotland

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Re: Castles in Scotland, Argyll & Bute

PostFri Feb 13, 2015 10:47 pm

Saddell Castle

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Saddell Castle is a 16th-century tower house on the shore of the Kilbrannan Sound near Saddell, Kintyre, Argyll and Bute, Scotland.

History[edit]
Built by David Hamilton, Bishop of Argyll, between 1508 and 1512, the castle was built from the stones of the ruined Saddell Abbey. The castle was gifted to James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran by Bishop James Hamilton, as payment of debts and taxes in 1556. The Earl of Arran exchanged it with the Chief of Clan MacDonald of Dunnyveg, James MacDonald in exchange for James's lands on the Isle of Arran. The castle was ransacked and burnt in 1558 by Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex, Lord Deputy of Ireland under orders of Queen Mary I of England in retaliation of James's involvement in Ireland against the English. The castle was later rebuilt and enlarged together with a trap door in the main entrance passage, which upon activation, sent unwanted visitors into a dungeon which had no exits. In 1607, the Clan Donald lands in Kintyre, including Saddell, were conveyed by King James VI to Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll. The castle fell into disrepair when Saddell House was built c. 1774. The castle was bought by the Landmark Trust and the castle was restored. The castle can be rented out as a self-catering property from the Landmark Trust.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Argyll & Bute

PostFri Feb 13, 2015 10:57 pm

Skipness Castle


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Skipness Castle stands on the east side of the Kintyre Peninsula in Scotland near the village of Skipness.

History[edit]
The main structure of the castle was built in the early 13th century by the Clan MacSween with later fortifications and other additions made to the castle through the 13th, 14th and 16th centuries.


View from Skipness Castle
The castle was garrisoned with royal troops in 1494 during King James IV of Scotland's suppression of the Isles. Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll granted Skipness to his younger son Archibald Campbell in 1511.[1]

During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in 1646, the castle was besieged by forces under the command of Alasdair Mac Colla. During the siege, Alasdair's brother, Gilleasbuig Mac Colla, was killed in August 1646.[2]

The castle was abandoned in the 17th century.

The Green Lady of Skipness Castle is said to haunt the location.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Argyll & Bute

PostFri Feb 13, 2015 11:01 pm

Castle Stalker


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Castle Stalker (Scottish Gaelic: Caisteal an Stalcaire) is a four-storey tower house or keep picturesquely set on a tidal islet on Loch Laich, an inlet off Loch Linnhe. It is about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north-east of Port Appin, Argyll, Scotland, and is visible from the A828 road about mid-way between Oban and Glen Coe. The islet is accessible (with difficulty) from the shore at low tide. The name "Stalker" comes from the Gaelic Stalcaire, meaning "hunter" or "falconer", and should therefore be pronounced stal-ker, with the l sounded, not as in the pronunciation of the English word "stocker" and some L-dropping accents' pronunciation of "stalker".

In recent times, the castle was brought to fame by the Monty Python team, appearing in their film Monty Python and the Holy Grail.

Contents [hide]
1 Setting
2 History
3 In popular culture
4 References
5 External links
Setting[edit]
The island castle's picturesque appearance, with its bewitching island setting against a dramatic backdrop of mountains, has made it a favourite subject for postcards and calendars, and something of a cliché image of Scottish Highland scenery. Castle Stalker is entirely authentic; it is one of the best-preserved medieval tower-houses surviving in western Scotland.[1] It forms part of the Lynn of Lorn National Scenic Area, one of forty in Scotland.[2]

History[edit]
The original castle was a small fort, built around 1320 by Clan MacDougall who were then Lords of Lorn.[3] Around 1388 the Stewarts took over the Lordship of Lorn, and it is believed that they built the castle in its present form around the 1440s. The Stewart's relative King James IV of Scotland visited the castle, and a drunken bet around 1620 resulted in the castle passing to Clan Campbell. After changing hands between these clans a couple of times the Campbells finally abandoned the castle in about 1840, when it lost its roof. In 1908 the castle was bought by Charles Stewart of Achara, who carried out basic conservation work. In 1965 Lt. Col. D. R. Stewart Allward acquired the castle and over about ten years fully restored it. Castle Stalker remains in private ownership and is open to the public at selected times during the summer.

For the 2011 census the island on which the castle stands was classified by the National Records of Scotland as an inhabited island that "had no usual residents at the time of either the 2001 or 2011 censuses."[4]

In popular culture[edit]
While most castle scenes in the movie Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975) were filmed in and around Doune Castle, Castle Stalker appears in the final scene as "The Castle of Aaaaarrrrrrggghhh". First the castle is seen from a distance, next John Cleese taunts Arthur in a French accent from its battlements, then finally a massive attack is launched at the castle. But the castle is saved by the police who appear to arrest Arthur and his knights for the murder of a famous historian.

The castle also makes a brief appearance in the film Highlander: Endgame.[5]

Castle Stalker is the inspiration for "Castle Keep" in the children's book, The Boggart.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Argyll & Bute

PostFri Feb 13, 2015 11:13 pm

Castle Sween


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Castle Sween is located on the eastern shore of Loch Sween, in Knapdale,[1] on the west coast of Argyll, Scotland. Castle Sween is thought to be one of the earliest stone castles built in Scotland, having been built sometime in the late twelfth century.[1] The castle's towers were later additions to wooden structures which have now since vanished.[1]

History[edit]
Castle Sween takes its name from Suibhne, whose name was Anglicised as "Sween". He was thought to have built the castle. Suibhne was thought to have been a grandson of Hugh the Splendid O'Neill who died in 1047.[2]

In the thirteenth century, the Clan MacSween governed lands extending as far north as Loch Awe and as far south as Skipness Castle on Loch Fyne.[2] In the later half of the thirteenth century the MacSween lands of Knapdale passed into the hands of the Stewart Earls of Menteith.[3]

By the time of the Wars of Scottish Independence the MacSweens entered into the service of King Edward I of England in the hope of recovering their lands from the Earl of Menteith, however when Robert the Bruce became King of Scotland he displaced the MacSweens from their lands.[2] After Robert the Bruce had defeated MacDougall Lord of Lorne in 1308, he then laid siege to Alasdair Og MacDonald in Castle Sween.[4] Alastair gave himself up and was disinherited by Robert Bruce who then granted Islay to Alasdair's younger brother, Angus Og, the king's loyal supporter,[4] who also received the Castle Sween in Kintyre from the King.[2]

In 1310, Edward II of England granted John MacSween and his brothers their family's ancestral lands of Knapdale, (though by then Castle Sween was held by Sir John Menteith).[3] It is possible that this could be the "tryst of a fleet against Castle Sween", recorded in the Book of the Dean of Lismore,[3] which tells of the attack of John MacSween on Castle Sween.

In 1323, after the death of Sir John Menteith, the Lordship of Arran and Knapdale passed to his son and grandson.[3] In 1376 half of Knapdale, which included Castle Sween, passed into possession of the MacDonald Lords of the Isles, by grant of Robert II of Scotland to his son-in-law John I, Lord of the Isles.[3]

During the MacDonald's century and a half of holding the castle, the castellans were first MacNeils and later MacMillans.[5]

In 1490 Castle Sween was granted to Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyll, by James IV of Scotland.[5]

In 1647, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Castle Sween was attacked and burnt by Alasdair MacColla and his Irish Confederate followers.[5]

In 1933 the castle was put in the care of the Historic Building and Monuments Directorate (HBMD).[6] Currently Castle Sween is under the protection of Historic Scotland
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Argyll & Bute

PostFri Feb 13, 2015 11:16 pm

Tarbert Castle


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Tarbert Castle is located on the southern shore of East Loch Tarbert, at Tarbert, Argyll, Scotland, at the north end of Kintyre. Tarbert Castle was a strategic royal stronghold during the Middle Ages and one of three castles at Tarbert. The castle overlooks the harbour and although pre 14th century in construction, the tower dates back to 1494 and the visit of James IV to the Western Highlands.

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Constables of Tarbert Castle
3 References
4 Bibliography
5 External links
History[edit]
In 712, Tarbert was burned by King Selbach mac Ferchair of Cenél Loairn and of Dál Riata and in 731 by his son, Dúngal mac Selbaig.[1]

King Edward II of England handed control of the castle to the Scottish King John II de Balliol in 1292. A fortified structure was built in Tarbert during the 13th century. It was reinforced with the addition of an outer bailey and towers in the 1320s by Robert the Bruce, to protect it against the Lords of the Isles. A towerhouse was added in the 16th century, which is the most noticeable part of the remains. The castle occupies high land above the village, providing views up Loch Fyne and beyond to the Firth of Clyde. This castle was captured from John MacDonald of Islay, Lord of the Isles by James IV of Scotland as part of his campaign to destroy the power of the Lords of the Isles in 1494. In 1687 the castle was involved in another skirmish when Walter Campbell of Skipness Castle seized it as a stronghold for Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll as part of actions in support of the Monmouth Rebellion in England.

There are only a couple of standing walls left and they are considered unstable. The castle has a very commanding view of the water approaches.

Constables of Tarbert Castle[edit]
John de Lany 1326[2]
Charles MacAlister 1481
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Argyll & Bute

PostFri Feb 13, 2015 11:21 pm

Torosay Castle

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Torosay Castle is a large house situated 1½ miles south of Craignure on the Isle of Mull, in the Scottish Inner Hebrides.

It was designed by architect David Bryce for John Campbell of Possil (see Carter-Campbell of Possil) in the Scottish Baronial style, and completed in 1858. Torosay is surrounded by 12 acres (4.9 ha) of spectacular gardens including formal terraces laid out at the turn of the 20th century and attributed to Sir Robert Lorimer. The castle and gardens used to be open to the public, being linked to the Craignure ferry terminal by the Isle of Mull Railway.

The garden's Statue Walk is made up of 19 statues in the style of Italian sculptor Antonio Bonazza. The statues were acquired by then-owner Walter Murray Guthrie from a derelict garden near Milan and shipped to Scotland for next to nothing as ballast in a cargo ship.

John Campbell of Possil sold the castle and the estate to Arburthnot Charles Guthrie, a wealthy London businessman, in 1865. It served as his "getaway" and must have been ideal for that purpose, as the castle has over 60 rooms and is surrounded by an estate of over 12 acres (0.049 km2). The current owner is now the sixth generation of the Guthrie family to live in the castle. Following the sale of Guthrie Castle out of the Guthrie family, Torosay is now generally acknowledged as the seat for Clan Guthrie. Torosay was sold in 2012 to the McLean Fund and closed for renovations. Opening December of 2013 with a private family. Christopher Guthrie-James, former Laird of the Estate said "it was with a sense of relief, rather than regret, that we sold the family home at Torosay." Kenneth Donald McLean sixth Laird has spent more than £1 million renovating the castle and gardens. The castle and its gardens were closed to the public in the summer.[1]


The Campbell of Possil coat of arms on the south elevation of Torosay Castle incorporates three bugles (horns). These were taken from the armorial bearings of John Campbell's third wife, Elizabeth Williamson, daughter of Donald Horne, but were never matriculated by the Lord Lyon of Scotland.
The novelist Angela du Maurier, older sister of Dame Daphne du Maurier, is said to have spent some time residing at Torosay with her close companion Olive Guthrie (Great Grandmother of the present owner).[2] Angela dedicated her book Weep No More (1940) to "Olive Guthrie of Torosay." Other visitors during the 1930s included Winston Churchill (Olive Guthrie was his aunt by marriage) and King George of Greece.



Champagne find[edit]
In July 2008 the then oldest bottle of Veuve Clicquot champagne was discovered inside a sideboard in Torosay Castle. The 1893 bottle was in mint condition. It is believed to have been locked inside the dark sideboard since at least 1897. The champagne is now on display at the Veuve Clicquot visitor centre in Reims, France, and regarded as "priceless"
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Argyll & Bute

PostFri Feb 13, 2015 11:24 pm

Torrisdale Castle

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Torrisdale Castle is a historic mansion residence, overlooking Torrisdale Bay, Argyll, south of Carradale, Kintyre, Scotland. The castle is situated at the edge of the village of Torrisdale.

History[edit]
The mansion was built in 1815, by General Keith Macalister, of Loup and Torrisdale in 1815.[1] Designed by architect James Gillespie Graham, the mansion is castellated and consists of two storeys and a basement. Further extensions occurred in the 1900s.[2]

The estate is home to the Macalister Hall family who have owned Torrisdale since 1890.[3] A number of lodges, cottages, houses and even apartments within the mansion are available as tourist accommodation. An organic Tannery & Craft Shop also run on the estate.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Argyll & Bute

PostFri Feb 13, 2015 11:27 pm

Castle Toward

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Castle Toward is a nineteenth-century country house on the southern tip of the Cowal peninsula in Argyll, Scotland. Built in 1820 it replaced a late medieval castle, which was home of the Clan Lamont. In the Second World War it served as HMS Brontosaurus, and after the war it was sold to Glasgow Corporation. It was used as an outdoor education facility until closure in 2009. A local group, the South Cowal Community Development Company, launched a community buyout of the castle in 2013.

Contents [hide]
1 History
1.1 Toward Castle
1.2 Castle Toward
1.3 HMS Brontosaurus
1.4 Outdoor education centre
2 Footnotes
History[edit]


Toward Castle[edit]
The original Toward Castle dates from the 15th century, and was owned by the Clan Lamont until 1809.[1] The castle was extended in the 17th century, but was abandoned after an attack by the Clan Campbell in 1646.[2] The ruins lie around 500 metres (1,600 ft) south-east of the later building.

Castle Toward[edit]
The present Castle Toward was built in 1820 by Kirkman Finlay, former Lord Provost of Glasgow, as his family's country house. Finlay purchased the Achavoulin estate and renamed in Toward in 1818.[3] It is built in the castellated Gothic Revival style, and designed by David Hamilton. Edward La Trobe Bateman was involved in garden design work here in the 1880s.[4]

It was from Castle Toward that the second son of Alexander Struthers Finlay - Alexander Kirkman Finlay - emigrated to the then colony of Victoria, Australia, and subsequently married the daughter of the then Governor of New South Wales, Hercules Robinson, 1st Baron Rosmead. The wedding of Nora Robinson and Alexander Kirkman Finlay at St James' Church, Sydney in 1878 attracted enormous attention in the colony and was extensively reported in the press.[5][6] Alexander Kirkman Finlay returned to Castle Toward and died there in 1883, five years after his marriage.[7]

Later owned and extended by Major Andrew Coats, of the Coats family of Paisley, Italian plasterwork was installed in the public rooms in 1920. The entire building was restored and enlarged over the course of the 1920s by the architect Francis William Deas, who also laid out most of the current landscaping. The grounds incorporate the ruins of the original Toward Castle, the Chinese ponds, wooded areas, access to the shore, and views over the Firth of Clyde.[8]

HMS Brontosaurus[edit]
During the Second World War the castle was requisitioned as a combined operations centre (COC No. 2), and was commissioned as HMS Brontosaurus in 1942.[9] It was a training centre for the amphibious landings which were launched on D-Day as well as other raids. Officers and men were trained in use of various landing craft on nearby beaches. Brontosaurus was visited by both Winston Churchill and Lord Mountbatten during this time. It closed in 1946.

Outdoor education centre[edit]
The castle, and 226 acres (0.91 km2) of woodland, were purchased by the Corporation of Glasgow in 1948. The building was used initially as a residential school for children recovering from illness or living in deprived home conditions. It then became available for residential education for children from all Glasgow Primary Schools and operated for 50 years as an outdoor education centre for children from Glasgow and Renfrewshire.[10] With the reorganisation of local government in Scotland in 1996, ownership passed to Argyll and Bute Council and such centres were threatened with closure. Peter Wilson, at the time the principal of the centre, formed a company called Actual Reality to operate the centre, as well as a second council-owned centre at Ardentinny.[10] Activities operated by Actual Reality included high ropes, kayaking, and orienteering, as well as gorge walks and hill walks. The grounds of the centre were used as a filming location for the children's BBC Television series Raven, featuring the actor James Mackenzie, up to and including the seventh series at the start of 2008.[11] The house was also used for residential courses for young people in music and art. The Glasgow Schools' Symphony Orchestra and West of Scotland Schools' Concert Band visited regularly. The castle's composer-in-residence, John Maxwell Geddes, wrote a Postlude for Strings in protest at plans to sell the castle.[12]

There have been several attempts by the council to sell the estate, but all have met with fierce opposition.[13] On 13 November 2009 Argyll and Bute Council temporarily closed the castle on the recommendation of Strathclyde Fire and Rescue, on the grounds that it was unfit for purpose.[13] The Council placed the building on the market in 2010, and in response the South Cowal Community Development Company (SCCDC) was formed to explore community ownership of the castle, though their initial bid was rejected by the Scottish Ministers in 2011.[14] An agreement was reached with a holiday company, which then pulled out of the sale in 2013 forcing the Council to market the property once more.[15] SCCDC launched a second community ownership bid which was accepted by Scottish Ministers in November 2013.[16] However, in December 2014 the Council rejected SCCDC's offer, claiming it was below market value, and instead offered to support SCCDC with a loan.[17] SCCDC dimissed the Council's proposal in January 2015, stating that securing the community purchase before a 31 January deadline now had "very little chance of succeeding".[18] By 26 January, 5,600 people had signed an online petition calling on the Council to reconsider their decision.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Clackmannanshire

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 5:37 pm

Alloa Tower

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Alloa Tower in Alloa in central Scotland is the surviving part of the medieval residence of the Erskine family, later Earls of Mar.[1]

An architect who was involved in Alloa Tower was John Melvin.

Dating from the 14th century, and retaining its original timber roof and battlements, the Tower is one of the earliest, and largest, of Scottish tower houses, with immensely thick walls.

The building has been extensively re-fenestrated during its history, but retains some internal medieval features. Incorporated into a much larger classical house of various phases from the 17th century on, the Tower now stands alone once more, later accretions having been demolished.

It is now administered by National Trust for Scotland
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Clackmannanshire

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 5:47 pm

Broomhall Castle

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Broomhall Castle was originally built in 1874 by John Foukes and Frances Mackison in 1874, for James Johnstone. It is situated in Menstrie, Clackmannanshire, Scotland on the Ochil Hills and consists of three storeys and a tower. In 1906 the wealth of the builder declined, and the Castle was sold to an Italian Riding School. in 1910 it became the Clifford Park Boys Prep School. In 1941 the building caught fire whilst the boarders were camping in the grounds. Despite the efforts of the Alloa Fire Brigade the building was gutted. There was a spectacular scene when the roof fell in, sending a shower of sparks heavenwards. It was left in ruins until 1985 when it was rebuilt and turned into a nursing home. In 2003 it was purchased by the current owners who wished to turn it into a small hotel. It is currently in use as a 10 bedroom hotel, with restaurant and lounge.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Clackmannanshire

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 5:52 pm

Clackmannan Tower

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Clackmannan Tower History

A royal hunting lodge was mentioned as being here in the 13th century: this might well have been built of timber. The site belonged to the Bruce family from 1359 to 1796, having been sold to them by their kinsman David II.

The first tower was built c1365 as a two-storey house by a member of the Bruce family on the summit of King’s Seat Hill, an important strategic site overlooking the Forth valley and all the land around. The original entrance was at first floor level and was reached by an external staircase.

In the 15th century the building was raised to tower height and the taller, square south tower was constructed. This created an L-plan structure with a crenellated parapet or wall walk supported on machicolations (alternate holes in the stonework said to be useful for pouring nasty substances down onto attackers!)

A turnpike stair was inserted in the re-entrant angle and there was an entrance at ground level. Only the top of this stair survives, as the lower part was removed to allow the construction of a wider scale-and-platt stair to the first floor.

Both the basements are vaulted, as are the first floors. The hall on the first floor has a fine 16th century fireplace. On the third floor is a long narrow gallery entered through one of the window recesses.

A mansion with crowstep gables and turrets was built to the south-west of the tower in the late 16th century . It was gradually demolished in the early 19th century and nothing survives now. In the late 17th century a new entrance court, walled and protected by a moat, to the east, with a new doorway into the tower embellished with a decorated pediment, were all built.

The Bruce family went bankrupt in 1708 and Henry Bruce fought for the Jacobites in the 1745 uprising. His widow, Lady Catherine Bruce, lived in the mansion until her death in 1791, when the tower and house were abandoned. On 26th August 1787 she knighted Robert Burns with the sword of Robert Bruce. There are fragments of a courtyard wall and traces of a garden terrace and a bowling green.

Clackmannan Tower has been in the guardianship of what is now Historic Scotland since the 1950s, by which time subsidence due to mine workings had caused major structural collapse.

Historic Scotland has undertaken extensive repairs to preserve the tower and is committed to increasing public access within the next few years. The parapet walk has now been restored.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Clackmannanshire

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 5:56 pm

Castle Campbell

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Castle Campbell is a medieval castle situated above the town of Dollar, Clackmannanshire, in central Scotland. It was the lowland seat of the earls and dukes of Argyll, chiefs of Clan Campbell, from the 15th to the 19th century, and was visited by Mary, Queen of Scots, in the 16th century.

Contents [hide]
1 History
1.1 16th century
1.2 Destruction and later history
2 References
3 External links
History[edit]
The castle was originally known as Castle Gloom, possibly deriving from the Scottish Gaelic: glom, meaning a chasm, and referring to the narrow gorges to either side of the site.[1] The naturally defended position may have been the site of a motte in the 12th century. The present tower was built in around 1430 for John Stewart, Lord Lorn, (d.1463) or one of his kinsmen.[2] In 1465 the property was acquired by Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyll, (d.1493) on his marriage to Isabel, Lord Lorn's daughter.[3] The first historical record of the castle dates from the following year, when Pope Paul II issued a bull against Walter Stewart, son of Lord Lorn, for attacking and damaging the "Place of Glowm". Argyll, who was at the papal court at the time, may have been instrumental in arranging the Pope's intervention. The tower shows signs of early rebuilding following this episode.[2]

The acquisition of Gloom expanded the power of the Campbells from Argyll in the west into central Scotland, and suited his position as Master of the Household to James III, which required his frequent presence at court.[4] In 1488 Argyll petitioned the newly crowned James IV to formally change the name of Gloom to Castle Campbell, and this was done by an act of parliament. The change in name may imply that the term "castle" was seen as particularly prestigious, requiring royal approval for its use.[5] At this time, the castle would have comprised the tower house, with other buildings arranged around the courtyard, and gardens outside. The east range was probably added first,[6] and some time after the accession of the 2nd Earl in 1493 the large south range was begun. This building shows the influence of the contemporary works at Stirling Castle, now known as the King's Old Building. It included a state apartment of hall, outer chamber and bedchamber, with large south-facing windows overlooking the gardens and the view across the Devon Valley. The range also provided additional private lodgings, and was accessed via two symmetrically placed stairways facing the courtyard.[7]

16th century[edit]
In the 16th century, the 4th Earl of Argyll (d.1558) embraced the cause of religious Reformation, and became the one of the leading Protestant lords of his day. His family supported the Calvinist preacher John Knox while he was in Scotland in the 1550s. Knox visited Castle Campbell and preached there, some time in 1556.[8] In January 1563 Mary, Queen of Scots, stayed at Castle Campbell on the occasion of the marriage of Margaret, sister to the 5th Earl of Argyll, and James Stewart, Lord Doune.[6] However, on the marriage of Queen Mary and Lord Darnley two years later, Argyll joined other Protestant lords in rebellion. During the Chaseabout Raid which followed Mary and Darnley received the surrender of Castle Campbell.[9] In the more peaceful 1590s Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll, rebuilt the east range of the castle to link the south range with refurbished guest chambers in the tower. The new work consisted of a fine two-arched loggia facing the courtyard, with a façade of polished ashlar masonry above. Behind this were galleries, fashionable additions to the accommodation within the castle, and new stairs to north and south. The east range has been compared to the north courtyard façade at Crichton Castle which was erected around the same time.[6] An inventory of 1595 records the furniture, tapestries, carpets and other items in each room of the castle, including a total of 47 beds.[10][11]

Destruction and later history[edit]

The castle in the last decade of the 19th century
The Earls of Argyll continued to support the Protestant cause, and in the religious conflicts of the mid 17th century Archibald Campbell, 8th Earl of Argyll, became the leader of the Presbyterian Covenanters, in opposition to the leading Royalist James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. In 1645 Montrose's troops, on their way to the Battle of Kilsyth, laid waste to the lands around Castle Campbell, including Dollar and Muckhart. Many of Montrose's men were MacLeans, long-standing adversaries of the Cambells. The castle itself was undamaged, and no siege was attempted.[12] In response, Argyll ordered the destruction of Menstrie Castle and Airthrie Castle, both seats of Royalists.[13] After the execution of Charles I the Campbells initially supported Charles II, with Argyll placing the crown of Scotland on Charles' head at Scone in 1651. However, Argyll opposed Charles' invasion of England, and in 1652 he submitted to Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth. Cromwell's forces were garrisoned in Castle Campbell in 1653. In July 1654, Royalist rebels attacked and burned Castle Campbell over two nights.[14]

Argyll was executed following The Restoration of 1660 and his son, the 9th Earl, built Argyll's Lodging in Stirling rather than renovate Castle Campbell. Apart from being briefly garrisoned during the Jacobite Rising of 1715 the castle was abandoned, and in 1805 the 6th Duke of Argyll sold it to Crawford Tait of Harviestoun, an adjacent estate. In 1859 Harviestoun, and Castle Campbell, was bought by businessman and former Lord Provost of Glasgow Sir Andrew Orr.[15] His son James Orr had excavations carried out at the castle in the 1870s, turning up fragments of stained glass from the windows of the south range.[10] In 1948 the then owners of the Harviestoun estate gave Dollar Glen to the National Trust for Scotland, who arranged for the castle to be cared for by the Ministry of Works. Restoration works have included a new roof on the tower, and excavations in the 1980s which revealed charred timbers from the 1654 burning.[14] The castle is now managed by Historic Scotland.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Clackmannanshire

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 6:00 pm

Menstrie Castle


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Menstrie Castle is a three-storey manor house in the town of Menstrie, Clackmannanshire, near Stirling, central Scotland.[1] From the early 17th century, it was home to Sir William Alexander, 1st Earl of Stirling, who was instrumental in founding the colony of Nova Scotia.[1] It was later owned by the Holburn or Holborne family, who were created Baronets of Menstrie in 1706.[2] The castle was restored in the 20th century, won a Civic Trust award,[3] and now incorporates holiday accommodation, private flats, and a museum and cafe run by the National Trust for Scotland.[4]

Contents [hide]
1 History
1.1 Alexander
1.2 Holborne
1.3 Later history
2 Restoration
3 The castle
4 References
5 External links
History[edit]

William Alexander, Earl of Stirling

William Alexander Monument, built of stones from his Menstrie Castle, Victoria Park, Halifax, Nova Scotia (1957)
Alexander[edit]
The castle was built around 1560 by the Alexander family,[5] a branch of the Clan MacAlister, who had anglicised their surname.[1] Sir William Alexander was born here around 1577, and later became known as a poet. He gained a place in the Royal Household of James VI, eventually becoming a member of the Privy Council of Scotland in 1615, Principal Secretary of State in 1626, and Earl of Stirling in 1633.[6]

In 1621, he was appointed governor of Nova Scotia, an area of North America including the modern Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and the Gaspé Peninsula.[6] In order to populate his territory, the Baronetage of Nova Scotia was devised in 1624, whereby Baronetcies were sold to support colonists. The scheme was a financial failure, and in 1632 Nova Scotia was returned to the French, who had claimed the area originally. Alexander died bankrupt in London in 1644.[6]

Holborne[edit]

Sir James Holborne, 1st Baronet, painted by John Baptist Medina
Menstrie Castle was burned by the Royalist James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose in 1645, during the English Civil War.[7] It was sold to James Holborne of Menstrie in 1648. A major general in the Scottish army, Holborne had a chequered career during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. An additional property, named Windsor House, and now demolished, was once situated opposite Menstrie Castle, to serve as a second laird's house. In 1719, most of the Menstrie estate was sold on, but the Holborne family kept the smaller house, probably as a dower house. A stone heraldic panel, from over the door of the demolished house, was preserved, and later built into the gable-end of the residential home now standing on the site. The motto DECUS MEUM VIRTUS is still legible, but differs from the motto on the Holborne family crest (Decus Summum Virtus, roughly translated as "Virtue, the Chief Ornament"). The last surviving heir of the Holborne family of Menstrie was a Miss Mary Anne Holborne of Bath, daughter of the 5th Baronet, who left an endowment of £8000 in 1882, for the church of Menstrie.

Later history[edit]

Menstrie Castle
The castle was purchased by George Abercromby of Tullibody in 1719, and his family held the estate until 1924, although the buildings had begun to deteriorate from around 1750. George's son, Ralph Abercromby, who became a major British military hero, was born here in 1734. The family moved from the castle around 1740 to Tullibody House, and the castle was left empty.

By the end of the Second World War, the castle was in such disrepair that the Scottish actor and conservationist, Moultrie Kelsall, led a campaign to secure funding and protection to aid its restoration.[5]

In 1960 the Castle was listed Category A, as a building of national importance (but only receiving statutory protection in December 1970).[8]

Restoration[edit]

In March 1957 actor and presenter Moultrie Kelsall began a campaign to raise funds to restore the building.

The building was restored by Clackmannanshire County Council, under the guidance of county architect William Higgins Henry (1905-1984), winning a Scottish Civic Trust award for restoration in 1962 (plaqued). The building was converted into four flats and a courtyard of new houses created to the east side. By 1964 the restoration was completed.[5]

The restoration retained the fine 16th century entrance arch, but replaced stone on the ground floor either side of this arch.

The eastern gable has fireplaces in it where a 17th-century extension was demolished.

The National Trust for Scotland care for the two ground floor flats and it is open to the public (on a restricted basis, two days per week).

The castle[edit]
Originally a small, L-plan tower house, the castle was extended in the 17th century into a U-plan house. A section of curtain wall closes the U, forming a courtyard.[7] Two rooms within the castle are occupied by an exhibition commemorating the link between Menstrie, William Alexander, and Nova Scotia. One of the rooms is decorated with the arms of all the Baronets of Nova Scotia. These rooms are managed by the National Trust for Scotland.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Clackmannanshire

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 6:03 pm

Sauchie Tower,


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Sauchie Tower, also known as Devon Tower, is a 15th-century tower house in Clackmannanshire, Scotland. The tower is located by the village of Fishcross, 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) north of Sauchie and 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) north of Alloa, close to the River Devon. It is protected as a Category A listed building,[1] and as a Scheduled Ancient Monument.[2]

History[edit]
The lands of Sauchie were granted by King Robert the Bruce to Henri de Annand, Sheriff of Clackmannan, in 1321. In 1431 Sir James Schaw of Greenock, Comptroller to the King, acquired the lands of Sauchie when he married the heiress Mary de Annand. Sauchie Tower was built by Sir James soon after. His son was appointed Governor of Stirling Castle in 1460.[3] The Schaws held the land into the 17th century, with several members of the family serving in the Scottish royal household.[4]

Around 1631, Alexander Schaw, who was knighted by King Charles I in 1633, built a house in the courtyard to the north-west of the tower. Another house on the estate, Schawpark, was built around 1700, and in 1752 Sauchie passed by marriage to the Cathcart family. Around this time the tower is thought to have been gutted by fire, and was not subsequently lived in.[4] Old Sauchie House, in the courtyard, was demolished after the estate was bought for coal extraction in the 1930s.[5] The tower was derelict but in good condition in 1950.[6] Schawpark was sold in 1826, to the Earl of Mansfield, who was then Lord Lieutenant of Clackmannanshire, but was demolished in 1961.[4]

Proposals for restoration of the tower were first put forward in the 1980s, when a series of excavations were carried out.[7] However, restoration work was never completed. The building is now owned by Clackmannanshire Heritage Trust, which has erected a temporary roof.[3] In 2002, the Friends of Sauchie Tower were formed to promote the restoration of the building.[8] With a Heritage Lottery Fund award of £46,300, the group undertook site clearance, carried out further excavations, and produced a DVD to raise awareness of Sauchie Tower.[9]

The tower[edit]
The tower measures 11.5 by 10.3 metres (38 by 34 ft) and rises four storeys to a corbelled parapet walk, with bartizans (open round towers) at the corners. At the north-west corner is a hexagonal cap house (a small room covering the top of the stair), with a pyramidal roof. The vaulted basement contains a well, and the main hall is at first-floor level.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 8:06 pm

Abbot's Tower


abbot's tower dumfries and galloway.jpg
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Abbot's Tower was originally a mid 16th century stone structure, founded by Cuthbert Brown. Built on church land which was sold to him in 1541, by his brother John Brown, abbot of Sweetheart Abbey. This structure was then converted into kitchens, when Cuthbert's son John founded the L-plan tower house in the 1580s. Of three storeys and a garret, the stair-wing is crowned by a caphouse and the entrance and an upper corbelled-out stair-turret, are in the re-entrant angle. Originally to the west was a walled barmkin, with a courtyard paved with granite slabs but sadly there are no standing remains. With a first floor hall, above a basement, the fortress fell into disuse after it was sold out of the family in 1627 and in the 1990s, the ruined tower was restored, to make a stunning dwelling house. Nearby is Kirkconnel House.
Street Map
Abbot's Tower is located east of New Abbey, off the A710. 7 miles south of Dumfries, on the A710.

The site is a private residence, with no public access and the view from the footpath is restricted.

Car parking is by the side of the road.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 8:10 pm

Amisfield Tower


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Amisfield Tower is a well-preserved tower house near Tinwald, about 5 miles (8.0 km) north of Dumfries, in Dumfries and Galloway, south-west Scotland. The castle has also been known as Hempisfield Tower.[1][2]

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Description
3 Features
4 Bibliography
5 References
History[edit]
There has probably been a stronghold on this site since the twelfth century, but the present tower was built by the Charteris family around 1600. That family feuded with the Kilpatricks of Kirkmichael leading to the murder of Roger Kilpatrick in 1526. The property passed to John Dalziel of Newton in 1636. The Dalziels supported the Stuarts in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, and captain Alexander Dalziel was executed as a royalist in 1650.

Description[edit]
Although the basic plan of Amisfield is a simple square with four stories and an attic, its richness in corbelling and turrets gives it a more romantic guise. Three corners have double-storeyed turrets while the fourth is decked. It has a steeply-pitched roof. These upper features are built in warm, red ashlar in contrast to the rubble walls below. As the tower was not built primarily for defence all of its shotholes are in the upper levels.

From first floor to base of the tower there is a projecting stair-tower, round for two stories, corbelling out to the square turret above . The entrance is defended by a machicolation.

Within the castle the rooms have fireplaces, and a painted border with lion faces in one room. The first floor hall has a garderobe and three windows. There is a vaulted basement, lit only by three gun-loops.

An oak door from the tower, fashioned by a local craftsman, is on display in Edinburgh at the National Museum of Scotland. It depicts Samson tearing open the jaws of a lion, and with a shield bearing the Arms of Charteris and Herries and dated 1600.

Hubert Fenwick described Amisfield as “simply marvellous”, saying that it “displays almost every Jacobean baronial conceit”.

There is a 17th-century mansion that was doubled in size ca. 1803 immediately adjacent to the tower. The property is owned by the Johnstone family.

Archaeological excavations in 2010 and 2011 have discovered the original tower house likely dates earlier than 1600.

Features[edit]
The corbelling is so-called billet-and-cable design, the stonework imitating logs and rope. The dormer windows adapted the old French form of bretèche. Dog-toothed motifs surround the armorial panels and some of the windows.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 8:14 pm

Annan Castle,


Annan Castle, was a castle that was located on the banks of the River Annan, in Annan, Scotland.[1]

A motte and bailey castle was built in the 12th century by the de Brus family, Lords of Annandale. A flood in the mid-12th century changed the course of the River Annan, which caused the castle mound to be partially eroded. The castle was abandoned as the main seat of the de Brus family, who moved to Lochmaben Castle.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 8:19 pm

Auchen Castle

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Auchen Castle not to be confused with the current Auchen Castle Hotel, is a ruined 13th Century castle situated near Moffat, Dumfries and Galloway.

Dating back to 1220, the original castle was probably built by Sir Humphrey de Kirkpatrick when he was Senestal of Annandale.

The castle was in the form of a courtyard with unusual solid drum towers flanking the gate and the corner towers. Sometime in the early 1300s the towers were rebuilt as hollow turrets with internal stairs.

Sir Roger de Kirkpatrick seemed to have been staunch in the English cause. It may have been his son who took part in the Comyn murder as a young man yet unknighted, though 150 years went by before any assassin was named.

The castle was later held by the Douglases of Morton, before passing to the Maitlands in the 15th century.

As the centuries passed, massive outer ramparts and curious underground passages and chambers were added to the castle and led to much puzzlement when discovered by historians. A wooden chalet with eight chimneys was also built and used to entertain guests after shoots.

The castle now stands in ruins near the current Auchen Castle Hotel and wedding venue.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 8:20 pm

Auchenrivock Tower

Auchenrivock Tower is a ruined late 16th Century tower house situated near Langholm, Dumfries and Galloway. The remains of the tower, which rise 8 feet at their highest, are currently built into a garden wall.

An earlier stronghold of the Irvings of Eskdale, called Stakehugh, lay near the current site.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 8:27 pm

Auchenskeoch Tower

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Auchenskeoch Tower is a 17th-century tower house situated in Dumfries and Galloway, south-west Scotland. It is near Dalbeattie in the civil parish of Colvend and Southwick, in the county of Kirkcudbrightshire. It is thought to be built on a Z-plan, making it the only such tower in Galloway. Dalswinton Tower in Dumfriesshire is the only other example in Dumfries and Galloway. The remains of the tower are within the modern Castle Farm.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 8:30 pm

Baldoon Castle


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Baldoon Castle
The ruined, ivy covered remains of the castle are said to be haunted by the ghost of Janet Dalrymple, the daughter of Sir James Dalrymple, who walks the ruins on the anniversary of her untimely death, 12th September5, 1669.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 8:34 pm

Barclosh Castle


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Barclosh Castle is a ruined 16th-century tower house situated near Dalbeattie, Dumfries and Galloway. There remains a section of wall 4 feet thick and 27 feet high.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSat Feb 14, 2015 8:37 pm

Barholm Castle

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Barholm Castle is a tower house located five miles south-west of Gatehouse of Fleet, in Dumfries and Galloway, southwest Scotland. The tower dates back to the late 15th century, and has been recently restored from a roofless state into a family home. Located at NX521529, Barholm was a stronghold of a branch of the McCulloch family. The tower is sometimes identified with the fictional Ellangowan, in Sir Walter Scott's Guy Mannering.

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 The castle
3 References
4 External links
History[edit]
The main block of the castle dates at least in part to the 15th century. A charter of 1541 was signed at Barholm. The stair tower is a late 16th century addition, with a date stone of 1575, at which time the main block was rebuilt with a higher wall-head, and new parapet walk. A walled-up door in the east wall of the main block suggests a redesign of the accommodation.

Barholm was a stronghold of the McCullochs, who had owned the property since 1510. A strongly Protestant family, they feuded with the Catholic Browns of Carsluith Castle, only two miles to the north-west. Protestant preacher John Knox is said to have stayed here. In 1579 John Brown of Carsluith was charged to appear in court for the murder of McCulloch of Barholm, and was fined for his non-appearance. Major John McCulloch of Barholm was executed for his part in the Pentland Rising and the battle of Rullion Green in 1666.

The tower was replaced as the McCulloch residence in the late 18th century when Robert Adam built a classical house for the family near Creetown to the north. This house was destroyed by fire in the 1950s, by which time the tower had long since fallen into disrepair. Single-storey farm outbuildings had also been added on to the north of the tower. From 2003, following a grant from Historic Scotland, the tower was re-roofed and restored as a private house. Archaeological excavations were carried out before and during the works, between 2000 and 2005. Architects for the project were Peter Drummond and later Patrick Lorimer of ARP Lorimer and Associates, and the restoration work - completed in 2006 - was carried out by Cumming & Co., a Perth based specialist restoration company.

The castle[edit]
The main block of the L-plan tower is of three storeys and a garret, with a vaulted basement at the lower level. The floor above was the hall, with a broad, hooded fireplace. The second floor was divided into two rooms. The small stair wing is a storey higher, with a caphouse at the top reached by a corbelled stair turret in the re-entrant angle. Narrow parapet walks run on the north and south walls. The main stair is a broad spiral which occupies the whole of the lower stair wing. The doors and windows have moulded surrounds, with a cable moulding, human faces and a grotesque head carved over the arched main door.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSun Feb 15, 2015 1:51 pm

Barjarg Tower

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Barjarg Tower is an L-plan tower house probably dating from 1680, four miles south-east of Penpont, Dumfriesshire, Scotland. [1] It is attached to a 19th-century mansion.[1]


History[edit]
The land appears to have been given to Thomas Grierson by the Earl of Morton in 1587. [2] His son John Grierson and his wife Grizel Kilpatrick built the tower.[1] Subsequent owners included the judge Lord Tinwald and the minister Andrew Hunter.[1]

Structure[edit]
The castle, which has been modernised within, has a crenellated parapet, which may be a later addition.[1] It has one open round turret at one corner and two conically capped turrets at two others.[1] The castle, which has four storeys and an attic, is built of red rubble. [2]

It is a category B listed building.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSun Feb 15, 2015 1:55 pm

Barscobe Castle


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Barscobe Castle is a 17th-century tower house in Balmaclellan, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. It is a typical house of a country laird, and according to a panel above the entrance, was built in 1648.[1] The L-plan tower was constructed using stone taken from Threave Castle. The main block is three storeys high with the stair wing one storey higher. The gables have a modification of crowsteps found only in Galloway.[1] It is a fine example of a mid-17th-century house which was unoccupied for many years until 1971 when it was restored. It has a modern byre (barn) attached, which has been converted into a garage. Barscobe Castle is a category A listed building.[2]

Above the entrance to Barscobe Castle is an armorial panel bearing the arms of Maclellan and Gordon with the initials of William Maclellan, who built the castle, and his wife Mary Gordon, the natural daughter of Sir Robert Gordon of Lochinvar, 4th Viscount Kenmure and Commissioner of War for the Stewartry from 1645-1648.

When William Maclellan died in 1654, his eldest son Robert Maclellan, an ardent Covenanter, succeeded to the castle and lands of Barscobe.


The Covenanter, Minister Peden, is said to have preached from this natural pulpit in the Linn Glen, Balmaclellan.
During the long War of the Covenants that followed the National Covenant of 1638, Barscobe became the meeting place for the late 17th century Covenanters, secretly gathering at the Holy Linn waterfall in Barscobe Wood to carry out illegal Conventicles and baptisms in their struggle for religious freedoms

Robert Maclellan was involved in a skirmish in 1666 at the Clachan Inn in nearby St. John's Town of Dalry, when he wounded Corporal George Deanes of the Royal Dragoon Guards by shooting fragments of his clay pipe into his leg. Later, in November of the same year, he led a force of 200 men to Dumfries where he captured Sir James Turner, district commander of the Royal Dragoon Guards, who had been sent to Galloway to deal severely with Covenanter disturbances, a period known as The Killing Time. Maclellan then marched towards Edinburgh. There many of his force were slaughtered at the Battle of Rullion Green in the Pentland Hills, their actions becoming known as the Pentland Rising.

He continued to fight the Covenanters' cause until he was finally captured by Claverhouse in 1682 and was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered. However, he had his sentence deferred after he took 'the Test' and swore allegiance to the Crown in order that he may return to Barscobe. But, just a year after his return, he was murdered at Barscobe by Robert Grierson of Mylnemark, a fellow Covenanter who felt Maclellan had betrayed the cause.

Barscobe remained in the Maclellan family until 1775 when it was sold to the Carson family. Later, in the 1920s, the estate was sold to Hugh Laing, a shipbuilder who built Barscobe House. It was sold again in 1961 to hotelier and politician Sir Hugh Wontner who restored Barscobe Castle in the 1970s under the guidance of its first tenant, Dame Bridget D'Oyly Carte. After Sir Hugh’s death in 1992, his daughter Jenifer Emery inherited the estate. She subsequently passed on the estate to her son Alistair Emery in 2007. The present owners are campaigning against the construction of a wind farm on nearby Blackcraig.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSun Feb 15, 2015 1:59 pm

Bonshaw Tower

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Bonshaw Tower is an oblong tower house, probably dating from the mid 16th century,[1] one mile south of Kirtlebridge, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, above the Kirtle Water.[2] It is adjacent to a 19th-century mansion.[2]

History[edit]
Bonshaw belongs to the Irving family. It was held in unbroken succession until the death of Sir Robert Beaufin Irving, a former captain of RMS Queen Mary, in 1954.[3]

Structure[edit]
The castle, which is habitable, has three storeys, and a garret,[2] with crow-stepped gables,[1] within a parapet.[2] The north-facing former attic light is now used as an open belfry.[1]

Inside a modern porch is the entrance door, with the motto SOLI DEO HONOR ET GLORIA above.[2] There is a monogramed pendant boss within the doorway. ]].[1] A vaulted entrance passage in the thickness of the wall leads to a vaulted basement.[2] Each wall has a splayed shot-hole. The south-west angle contains a windowless dungeon, with a ventilation flue. There is a hatch in the vaulting to the first-floor Hall. From the north-east angle of the cellar a turnpike stair leads to all storeys of the tower.[2]

The Hall , has a wide fireplace and four windows. There are two aumbries in the jambs while a third aumbry has an ogival lintel.[2]

The bedroom, on the second floor, has a wall press and a garderobe. One of its four windows is high in the wall.[2]

There is a machicolated opening about each embrasure of the parapet, which is drained by gargoyled cannon-spouts. The present pitched slate rrof was installed in the early 19th century, as the flagstones of the original roof were removed to floor a farmhouse.[2]

It is a category A listed building
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSun Feb 15, 2015 2:02 pm

Buittle Castle,


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Buittle Castle, also known historically as Botle or Botel Castle, is a ruined castle in Dumfries and Galloway, south-west Scotland. It is located in the valley of the River Urr, 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) west of Dalbeattie. The castle is within the parish of Buittle, in the traditional county of Kirkcudbrightshire.[1]

A motte and bailey castle was built by Roland, Lord of Galloway, in the 12th century, half a mile upstream from the later Norman castle. The castle passed by marriage to John de Balliol through the heiress Dervorguilla of Galloway, who built the Norman castle. Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, captured the castle in 1286. The castle was in English hands in 1296. King Robert the Bruce captured the castle in 1313 and it was given to Sir James Douglas, Lord of Douglas. The castle came into Edward Balliol's hands in 1332, before being given to Archibald the Grim, 3rd Earl of Douglas, in 1372. The castle remained in the hands of the Douglasses until 1456, when the castle reverted to the Crown. The castle was later in the hands of the Maxwells and later the Gordons. The castle was slighted in 1595, and the castle became ruinous.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSun Feb 15, 2015 2:09 pm

Caerlaverock Castle


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Caerlaverock Castle is a moated triangular castle first built in the 13th century. It is located on the southern coast of Scotland, 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) south of Dumfries, on the edge of the Caerlaverock National Nature Reserve. Caerlaverock was a stronghold of the Maxwell family from the 13th century until the 17th century when the castle was abandoned. It was besieged by the English during the Wars of Scottish Independence, and underwent several partial demolitions and reconstructions over the 14th and 15th centuries. In the 17th century, the Maxwells were created Earls of Nithsdale, and built a new lodging within the walls, described as among "the most ambitious early classical domestic architecture in Scotland".[1] In 1640 the castle was besieged for the last time and was subsequently abandoned. Although demolished and rebuilt several times, the castle retains the distinctive triangular plan first laid out in the 13th century. Caerlaverock Castle was built to control trade in early times.[2]

Today, the castle is in the care of Historic Scotland and is a popular tourist attraction. It is protected as a scheduled monument,[3] and as a category A listed building.[4]

Contents [hide]
1 Ownership
2 History
2.1 Wars of Independence
2.2 Repair and rebuilding
2.3 Earls of Nithsdale
3 Protected areas
4 Cultural references
5 Notes
6 References
6.1 Footnotes
6.2 Bibliography
7 Further reading
8 External links
Ownership[edit]
The history of its builders can be traced to Undwin and his son Maccus in the eleventh century; Maccus gave his name to the barony of Maccuswell, or Maxwell. His grandson, John de Maccuswell (d.1241), was first Lord Maxwell of Caerlaverock. The Baronies of Maxwell and Caerlaverock then passed down through the male line, sometimes collaterally. Robert de Maxwell of Maxwell, Caerlaverock and Mearns (d.1409) rebuilt Caerlaverock castle and was succeeded by Herbert Maxwell of Caerlaverock (d.1420)

History[edit]
The present castle was preceded by several fortifications in the area: a Roman fort on Ward Law Hill and a British hill fort that was in use around 950.

The earliest mention of the lands of Caerlaverock is around 1160, when they were granted to the monks of Holm Cultram Abbey.[1] Around 1220 Alexander II of Scotland granted the lands to Sir John Maxwell, making him Warden of the West March. Sir John Maxwell also served as Chamberlain of Scotland from 1231–1233,[1] and began work on the first castle at Caerlaverock. This castle was square in shape and was one of the earliest stone castles to be built in Scotland. It had a moat with a bridge facing north. Only the foundations and remains of a wooden enclosure around it remain.[5]

This early castle may have been incomplete when it was abandoned in favour of a rock outcrop some 200 metres (660 ft) to the north. It was here that Sir John's brother Sir Aymer Maxwell began construction of the present castle. Sir Aymer also served as Chamberlain in 1258–1260, and was Justiciar of Galloway in 1264.[1] In the 1270s the "new" castle was completed, and Herbert Maxwell, nephew of John Maxwell, occupied it.

When the moat around the second castle was dug, the quarrying was probably a source of building stone for the castle.[6] While the gatehouse stands on natural rock, the rest of the castle was built on a clay platform created especially for the castle.[7]

Wars of Independence[edit]
In 1299, the garrison of Caerlaverock attacked Lochmaben Castle which was held by English forces. In July 1300, Edward I of England marched north with eighty-seven of the Barons of England in his host, as well as knights of Brittany and Lorraine.[a] The Maxwells, under their chief, Sir Eustace Maxwell, made a vigorous defence that repelled the English several times. In the end the garrison were compelled to surrender, after which it was found that only sixty men had defied the whole English army for a considerable period. In recent years, Historic Scotland has organised re-enactments of the Siege. During the siege the English heralds composed a roll of arms, the Roll of Caerlaverock, in the form of verses of poetry, each describing the feats of valour of each noble and knight present, with a blazon of his armorials.[8]

Possession of the castle was subsequently restored to Sir Eustace Maxwell, Sir Herbert's son, who at first embraced the cause of John Balliol, and in 1312 received from Edward II an allowance of £20 for the more secure keeping of the castle. He afterwards gave in his adherence to Robert Bruce, and his castle, in consequence, underwent a second siege by the English, in which they were unsuccessful. Fearing that this important stronghold might ultimately fall into the hands of the enemy, and enable them to make good their hold on the district, Sir Eustace dismantled the fortress, a service and sacrifice for which he was liberally rewarded by Robert Bruce.

By 1337 the castle was once again inhabited, and Sir Eustace now changed sides again, giving his support to Edward Balliol. Around 1355 Sir Roger Kirkpatrick of Closeburn captured Caerlaverock for David II of Scotland, and partly dismantled the castle.[9]

Repair and rebuilding[edit]

View showing the latter addition to the castle at the north end of the Inner Court
By the end of the Wars of Independence in the mid 14th century, Caerlaverock had been regained by the Maxwells, with Sir Robert Maxwell rebuilding much of the castle between 1373 and 1410.[9] Further work was undertaken by Robert, 2nd Lord Maxwell, in the mid 15th century, probably involving reconstruction of the gatehouse. A new west range was added within the walls around 1500.[4][9]

The Catholic Maxwells took up the cause of Mary, Queen of Scots, after her forced abdication in 1567. Caerlaverock was besieged in 1570 by an English Protestant force led by the Earl of Sussex, and was again partly demolished, including the destruction of the gatehouse with gunpowder.[9]

By 1593, John, 8th Lord Maxwell was repairing the castle again, building up the gatehouse for defence against the Johnstones of Annandale, with whom the Maxwells were feuding.[9] The 8th Lord was killed by the Johnstones during a fight at Dryfe Sands, and in 1613 the 9th Lord Maxwell was executed for the revenge murder of Sir James Johnstone.

Earls of Nithsdale[edit]
In 1619 Robert, 10th Lord Maxwell, married Elizabeth Beaumont, cousin of the Duke of Buckingham, a favourite of James VI of Scotland. He was subsequently created Earl of Nithsdale and appointed to the Privy Council of Scotland. To reflect his new status he built the elaborate south and east ranges within the castle, known as the Nithsdale Lodging.[9]

The new ranges were completed around 1634, but further religious turmoil soon turned against the Catholic Maxwells. In 1640 the Protestant Covenanter army besieged Caerlaverock for 13 weeks, eventually forcing its surrender. The south wall and tower were demolished, and the castle was never repaired or reoccupied.[9]

Protected areas[edit]
Caerlaverock Castle is within the Nith Estuary National Scenic Area, protected for its scenic qualities, with the castle recognised as a landmark of the area.[10] The castle is at the northern edge of the Caerlaverock National Nature Reserve, which extends to 55 square kilometres (21 sq mi) and consists of saltmarsh, mudflats and grazing land. It is an internationally important wintering site for waterfowl and wading birds, including the Barnacle Goose.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSun Feb 15, 2015 3:33 pm

Cardoness Castle

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In AD1220 an old Cardoness Castle was noted in records, when a Nicholas de Kerdenes and his wife Cicely were in dispute with the monastery at Dundrennan over Cicely's dowry - the litigation went on for over 20 years. Nicholas was probably descended from one of a number of Anglo-Norman lords who were persuaded by the King of Scotland to settle in the area in an attempt to reduce the power of the Lords (King) of Galloway (MacDowalls). The newcomers were well advised to build strong castles and many of these fortresses survive.

In AD1277 Bertram de Kerdennes was a witness to a charter by King Alexander III (reigned 1249-1286)confirming a grant by Devorguilla de Balliol ( step-sister of Thomas of Clan MacDowall of Garthland Stoneykirk Wigtownshire ) to Glasgow Cathedral and in AD1282 Sir Bertram de Kerdennesse was a witness to the surrender by Robert de Campania to Devorguilla, of all his lands in Borg (Borgue, Stewartry of Kirkcudbright).[1] note: McCulloch of Ardwell, Stoneykirk, Wigtownshire was a neighbour of McDowell of Garthland, Stoneykirk.

On 18 June 1342 Sir Malcolm Fleming had a charter of the lands of Kerdones (Cardoness), in Galloway, from King David II in excambion for the lands of Mochrum which the King had formerly given him, and three other charters from said monarch of the lands of Lenzie, Kilmaronoch, and the barony of Dalliell in free warren, the lands of Rinnes of Wigtown, and the lands of Sithboger in the barony of Lenzie forfeited by Thomas Balcasky. He married a lady whose Christian name was Marjorie, to whom cloth and furs were given by the King in 1329. Malcolm Fleming, the King's esquire, and Marjorie his wife, the King's nurse, died about 9 November 1343, and there is a note of a charter of lands in the sheriffdom of Dumfries to Malcolm Wallayis (Wallace), said to be resigned by Marjorie Fleming, Countess of Wigtown, foster-sister to King David II, but this was probably her daughter Marjory. [The Scots Peerage VIII:520-522]

Tradition asserts that in the 15th century an heiress of the de Kerdernes family married a McCulloch (from Wigtownshire)) and tells a grim and dramatic tale of how she became the last of her race.[2] "A certain laird of Cardoness, having exhausted his resources in the building of his castle , joined a band of Border thieves and amassed considerable property by plunder. During twenty years of married life his wife had borne him nine daughters; but this did not satisfy his now increased anxiety to perpetuate his name, and he threatened his lady that, unless at her approaching confinement, she produced a son, he would drown her and all her nine daughters in the Black Loch and look out for another wife. The probability of his carrying out this threat was not doubted for a moment, and hence great was the joy of the lady and her neighbours when she actually presented her husband with a boy. It was now midwinter (c.1395) and the lake was firmly frozen over so the Laird announced his determination of giving a grand fete on this same Black Loch. In accordance with his orders, on a certain Sunday, his whole family was there assembled, excepting one daughter, who was unable to join the party(some versions of the story state that she was attending her mother at home). The revels were at their height when, suddenly the ice gave way, and the old "de Kerdernes" was plunged himself into the dark waters, and perished miserably with all his family, only excepting the one young lady, who, having thus narrowly escaped the same fate, shortly after, married one of the McCullochs".

Cardoness Castle is a well-preserved 15th Century tower house, in Anwoth Civil Parish area, just south west of Gatehouse of Fleet, Kirkcudbrightshire, Galloway south west Scotland owned by the MacCulloch family of Galloway also known as the MacCullochs of Myreton, Wigtownshire.[3][4]

By 1628 Cardoness belonged to John Gordon Clan Gordon, head of a family with whom the McCullochs had long feuded. In 1690 Sir Godfrey McCulloch shot dead John Gordon's son, William Gordon. Sir Godfrey escaped to France, but was spotted in Edinburgh in 1697 and beheaded on the Maiden, the Scottish equivalent of the guillotine.

Cardoness Castle passed through the hands of a number of owners before being placed in State care in 1927.

Today it is cared for by Historic Scotland.

Fleet Bay can be seen from its battlements. It is now in the care of Historic Scotland.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSun Feb 15, 2015 3:36 pm

Carsluith Castle

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Carsluith Castle is a ruined tower house, dating largely to the 16th century. It is located beside Wigtown Bay on the Galloway coast of south-west Scotland, around 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi) south east of Creetown.

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 The castle
3 Notes
4 References
5 External links
History[edit]
The lands of Carsluith were held by the Cairns family until 1460, when they passed to James Lindsay of Fairgirth, Chamberlain of Galloway. He was probably the builder of the main tower at Carsluith in the late 15th or early 16th century. His son, Sir Herbert Lindsay, was killed at Flodden in 1513. The castle then passed, though a daughter of James Lindsay, to Richard Brown. The Browns (or Brouns) of Carsluith added to the castle, building the stair tower on the north side in the 1560s. A Roman Catholic family, the Browns feuded with the Protestant McCullochs of Barholm, and in 1579 Richard's son John was fined £40, when his son, also John, failed to appear on a charge of murdering the Mculloch laird of Barholm.

Another descendant of Richard Brown was Gilbert Brown of Carsluith, who served as the last abbot of Sweetheart Abbey, near Dumfries, before the Protestant Reformation. Later it was alleged several times that Gilbert was sheltering Jesuit priests at Carsluith, and in 1605 he was arrested for his Catholic sympathies. He was banished to France, where he became rector of the Scots College, Paris. He died in Paris in 1612.

The Browns of Carsluith emigrated to India in 1748, and the castle has not been occupied since. In the early 19th century, new farm buildings were built on to the castle, forming a U-plan steading which remains. Today the castle ruin is protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument,[1] and as a category A listed building.[2] The tower is now in the care of Historic Scotland and is open to the public.

The castle[edit]
Carsluith Castle is situated between the sea shore and the A75 road. There may once have been a moat or pond between the castle and the road.

The castle comprises a main tower 9.8m by 7.6m, and a later stair tower, built on to the north east. The main tower is around 10m high to the eaves. Above this are crow-step gables, with corbelled wall walks along the gable ends. Three of the corners have round turrets. The stair tower is topped by a gabled caphouse. A sink at first floor level once drained via a carved gargoyle on the west side.

The ground floor entrance is via the stair tower. The Brown arms are carved above the door, with initials and the date 156-, the last digit being illegible, although it was said in the 19th century to have been legible as 4.[3] The vaulted basement is divided into two cellars, with gunloops in the walls. Above is the hall with windows and a fireplace. Another floor would have had bedrooms, with an attic at the wall walk level, although these floors have gone. On the north side, holes exist in the outside wall which would have supported an external timber gallery linking the second floor rooms and stair tower.
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSun Feb 15, 2015 3:40 pm

Castle Kennedy

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Castle Kennedy Stranraer Scotland
There is a castle there - indeed there are two. Castle Kennedy itself, built in 1607, was burned down in 1716 and remains a ruin to this day.

Prior to the Reformation the two lochs, Black Loch and White Loch, were together known as Loch Crindil / Crindill. A small island in the White Loch ( Innysmacrinyl AD1415 ) gave the parish the name 'the Inch or Inche or Insche' (Gaelic innis) otherwise 'island'.

The owners decided to build Lochinch Castle, Inch Parish, in 1864 as a replacement rather than restoring the old castle.[1]

The grounds of the castle, which were laid out in the 1730s by John Dalrymple, 2nd Earl of Stair,[1] are open to the public. Because of the Gulf Stream and the proximity of the sea on two sides, the gardens enjoy a mild climate which permits the cultivation of rhododendrons and other plants not often seen in Scotland.

A drawing of the ruins of old "Castle Kenedy, September 15 1789" by Francis Grose is in book Antiquities of Scotland. vol.2
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSun Feb 15, 2015 3:43 pm

The Castle of Park

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The Castle of Park is a 16th-century L-plan tower house near Glenluce, in Dumfries and Galloway, southwest Scotland. It is a category A listed building.[1]

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Description
3 References
4 External links
History[edit]
The castle was begun in 1590 for Thomas Hay, the son of one of the Commendators of Glenluce Abbey, and his wife Jonet MakDouel.[2] It was completed by 1599.[3]

The building was extended in the 18th century,[2] and was used by the Hay family until Sir John Dalrymple-Hay sold the Park estate in 1875;[1] it was then left uninhabited.

A program of restoration was carried out in the 1950s and 1960s by the Ministry of Public Buildings and Works, including removal of the 18th-century wings.[2] In the 1980s, additional work was done by the Landmark Trust.[3] The building is now maintained using income from its use as holiday accommodation.[4]

At various times the building has also been known as "Park Hay", "The Park O' Luce", "Park Castle" and "Park House".[2]

Description[edit]
The building is divided into four floors. The lowest floor consists of three barrel vaulted rooms used as kitchens and store-rooms; above this is the main hall measuring some 22 feet (6.7 m) by 17 feet (5.2 m).[5] The third and fourth floors are divided into smaller rooms. The southward projection contains a large spiral staircase, from which a further spiral stair leads to the roof and to a small room above the main stair.[3]

Although imposing, the building is not defensible.[3] Unlike earlier examples such as Drum Castle,[6] the walls are hollowed out with additional staircases and, to quote the 1898 description, "commodious closets".
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Re: Castles in Scotland, Dumfries and Galloway

PostSun Feb 15, 2015 3:47 pm

The Castle of St. John


castle_of_st_john_stranraer The Castle of St. John  dumfries and galloway.jpg
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The Castle of St. John is an early 16th-century L-plan tower house in the centre of Stranraer, in Dumfries and Galloway, southwest Scotland. It was built by the Adairs of Kilhilt c.1510. It has been used as a home, a court, a prison, and as a military garrison during the "Killing Times" of Covenanter persecution in the 1680s. The castle was refurbished in the late 1980s and is now a museum.

The Castle of St John was built around 1510 in what was later to become Stranraer - it is sometimes called Stranraer Castle. This small town overlooks Loch Ryan on the west of Dumfries and Galloway, although before the reorganisation of local government in Scotland, Stranraer was in Wigtownshire.

The land on which it was built was owned by a family called Adair. They were probably of Irish origin (Northern Ireland is only 40 miles away as the crow flies) and they held lands around Portpatrick to the west in the early 1300s. There is even a legend that they were allocated the area by King Robert the Bruce for getting rid of the previous occupants - the Curries - who were notorious pirates. Like all successful families in those days, they expanded their territory and acquired the lands on which the Castle of St John now stands by 1484. Initially, they built a chapel dedicated to St John and it was not until around 1510 that they built a castle which was known variously as the Place of St John and Castle of Chapel.

When the Burgh of Stranraer was created in 1595, its Charter specifically excluded the castle and grounds - but in favour of an Elizabeth Kennedy. Indeed, from 1600 onwards the Adairs concentrated on their lands in Ireland. The Castle of St John remained part of the Kennedy's estates until 1670 - at which point it was taken over by the Dalrymples of Stair. Sir James Dalrymple of Stair also obtained Castle Kennedy itself around the same time.
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